An analysis of the effects of creatine in people
Results across studies are mixed as to whether creatine supplementation is effective for increasing bone health in older adults.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. The remaining amount of creatine is synthesized primarily in the liver and kidneys from arginine and glycine by the enzyme arginine:glycine amidinotransferase AGAT to guanidinoacetate GAAwhich is then methylated by guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase GAMT using S-adenosyl methionine to form creatine see Fig.
A teaspoon the measure, i. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises.
It has been advised that further research be carried out into the effects of creatine supplementation and health in the elderly and adolescent [ 73 , 75 ]. The increase was largest in the arms. In addition, despite many anecdotal claims, it appears that creatine supplementation would have positive influences on muscle cramps and dehydration [ 82 ]. Furthermore the supplement group had an increase in serum creatinine but not creatinine clearance suggesting no negative effect on renal function. From the 11 males in the supplemented group, 3 participants were responders mean increase of In an attempt to increase creatines bioavailability creatine has been esterified to reduce the hydrophilicity; this product is known as creatine ethyl ester. Chilibeck et al. When orally ingested, CM has shown to improve exercise performance and increase fat free mass [ 5 - 9 ]. However, both creatine citrate and pyruvate contain less creatine than creatine monohydrate — creatine monohydrate contains Creatine deficiency syndromes, due to deficiency of glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase, can cause decreases or complete absence of creatine in the central nervous system. Probably not.
Creatine — Effect on Strength Endurance Creatine is your muscles fastest way to regenerate ATP, and the primary energy source for short-term high-intensity work.
Food sources include red meat and fish.
The average 70 kg young male has a creatine pool of around g which varies between individuals [ 10 , 11 ] depending on the skeletal muscle fiber type [ 1 ] and quantity of muscle mass [ 11 ]. Discussion There is evidence from individual studies that creatine supplementation and resistance training increase properties of aging bone Table 1 , however, our meta-analysis failed to show a greater effect from creatine on BMD compared to placebo. Caffeine blunts the effect of creatine? It may have a role in rehabilitation for brain and other injuries. It is also the most common supplement found in sports nutrition supplements, including sports drinks. In a report [ 52 ] conducted on pupils from middle and high school aged 10 — 18 in Westchester County USA 62 of the pupils surveyed were using creatine. Am J Clin Nutr. Other supplementation protocols are also used such as a daily single dose of around 3 — 6 g or between 0. When creatine supplementation is combined with heavy resistance training, muscle insulin like growth factor IGF-1 concentration has been shown to increase. It has also been observed that in addition to cytosolic creatine, the existence of a mitochondrial isoform of Crea T1 allows creatine to be transported into the mitochondria. Note that the diagram shows the second set of bench press — the first set was only a pre-exhaustion set of 10 reps, designed to test endurance and recovery to the second test. Should I use creatine supplements?
Of these studies, five combined creatine supplementation with other nutritional supplements ie, protein or conjugated linoleic acid. Indicating another intra-mitochondrial pool of creatine, which seems to play an essential role in the phosphate-transport system from the mitochondria to the cytosol [ 13 ].
When to take creatine
However time to peak concentration, and velocity constants of absorption and elimination, was the same for all three forms of creatine. Stimulating osteoblast cell activity may enhance osteoprotegerin production, a protein which inhibits osteoclast cell activity and decreases bone resorption [ 21 ]. The authors speculated that creatine in addition to a single bout of resistance training can favor an anabolic environment by inducing changes in gene expression after only 5 days of supplementation. The study by Vandenberghe and the abstract from Harris are as of today still the only pieces of evidence for a counteracting effect between caffeine and creatine. There is a great amount of research published on creatine supplementation; protocols of administration, forms of creatine, as well as potential side effects. As creatine augments training results, higher volume might conceivably benefit the creatine group. The results of this study [ 65 ] showed that ethyl ester was not as effective as CM to enhance serum and muscle creatine stores. About half of the daily need for creatine is obtained from the diet [ 11 ]. Although CM supplementation did not significantly enhance performance, markers of renal and liver function were within normal ranges indicating the safety of the applied creatine supplementation protocol. Increased body mass Increased creatine content in muscles has been associated with greater body mass. A retrospective study [ 81 ], that examined the effects of long lasting 0. Creatine and the creatine transporter: a review. However, creatine had no effect on upper limb BMD [ 18 ]. One group who only received placebo.
based on 108 review