In the seventeenth century England established permanent colonies in North America, overrunning earlier Dutch and Swedish colonies. Sweden and Denmark Sweden and Denmark also succumbed to the attractions of America, although to a lesser extent.
Spain established a centralized administration in its New World colonies with a viceroy representing the Crown. Other nations were excluded from the trading monopoly the mother country established. Between and Frobisher as well as John Davis explored along the Atlantic coast.
The Spanish used a system of colonial administration called the encomienda system— the right of landowners to use Native Americans as laborers. Moreover, late medieval Christianity inherited a rich tradition of hatred for non-Christians derived in part from the Crusaders' struggle to free the Holy Land and from warfare against the Moors.
New France was sparsely populated by trappers and missionaries and dotted with military forts and trading posts.
The Chinese emperor, with the aid of a bureaucracy run by mandarins, ruled a huge empire that was firmly built on communal villages.
Thinking he had found islands near Japan, he sailed on until he reached Cuba which he thought was mainland China and later Haiti.
Portuguese ships traveled along the western coast of Africa, finding gold and other goods. Catholic missionaries were also instrumental in converting and maintaining order within the colonial territories.
The desire to supplant the trade moguls, especially the Italians, and fear of the Ottoman Empire forced the Atlantic nations to search for a new route to the East.