Keywords: biomarker, heart failure, ICD 10, readmission, utilization 1. This in turn contributes to the elevated pro-inflammatory response reported in patients with HF. Finding a new balance certainly requires a thorough overview, with delicate attention to both true insights and practical feasibility.
A recent review by Simons et al. Clinically, it is typically classified into two major types based on the functional status of heart: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction HFpEF and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction HFrEF. The most common cause for HF is reduced left ventricular myocardial function; however, dysfunction of the pericardium, myocardium, endocardium, heart valves or great vessels alone or in combination is also associated with HF.
Unfortunately, these numbers are on a gradual increase due to the on-going prevalence of HF with increasing age. Multiple biomarkers have been classified depending on their putative functional impact on cardiac myocytes and the resulting pathophysiological changes in patients with HF and include a myocyte stretch biomarkers; b myocyte necrosis biomarkers; c systemic inflammation biomarkers; d oxidative stress biomarkers; e extracellular matrix turnover biomarkers; f neuro-hormone biomarkers; and g biomarkers of extra-cardiac processes, such as renal function.
Weighing yourself daily is one of the easiest ways to track fluid retention, indicated by a sudden gain. The work of Singh et al underlines the importance of coronary artery disease in the study of ischemic left LV dysfunction and heart failure.
This occurs as a result of ineffective blood volume and pressure, which stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system RAAScausing the release of antidiuretic hormone ADHwhich all together ultimately lead to ventricular enlargement, negative ventricular remodeling and HF.
Among their recent findings: African-Americans are at increased risk of congestive heart failure.