The history of music

history of music pdf

Classical The music forms and styles of the Classical period, which spans from tois characterized by simpler melodies and forms such as the sonatas. Significant evidence has been discovered that very early man developed primitive flutes from animal bones and used stones and wood as percussion.

History of music book

The Renaissance — was a golden period in music history. By the middle of the 16th century, the international style began to break down, and several highly diverse stylistic trends became evident: a trend towards simplicity in sacred music, as directed by the Counter-Reformation Council of Trent , exemplified in the music of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina ; a trend towards complexity and chromaticism in the madrigal, which reached its extreme expression in the avant-garde style of the Ferrara School of Luzzaschi and the late century madrigalist Carlo Gesualdo ; and the grandiose, sonorous music of the Venetian school , which used the architecture of the Basilica San Marco di Venezia to create antiphonal contrasts. Keyboard instruments also became increasingly common and the advent of the sonata followed in due course. In , deep in a cave in Slovenia occupied 45, years ago by Neanderthals , a flute was found. They carried their style with them: smooth polyphony which could be adapted for sacred or secular use as appropriate. One person might like a certain style of music while another person might not. So, we know that music is old, and may have been with us from when humans first evolved. Oldest musical instrument The oldest musical instrument ever discovered is believed to be the Divje Babe flute, discovered in a cave in Slovenia in , though this has been disputed. The rise of the virtuoso performer continued throughout this period of music as demonstrated by the many of the concertos and sonatas composed during this time. Music in the generation after Josquin explored increasing complexity of counterpoint ; possibly the most extreme expression is in the music of Nicolas Gombert , whose contrapuntal complexities influenced early instrumental music, such as the canzona and the ricercar , ultimately culminating in Baroque fugal forms. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Like cave painting , the first purpose of dance is probably ritual - appeasing a nature spirit or accompanying a rite of passage. One is dancing. The High Baroque period lasted from to , during which Italian opera was more dramatic and expansive. Modality was firmly established as a basis for all harmony, and although strict rules governing the use of dissonance, the expressive qualities of Renaissance music is virtually unparalleled.

Around the 14th-century, secular music became increasingly prominent, setting the stage for the music period known as the Renaissance. Like cave paintingthe first purpose of dance is probably ritual - appeasing a nature spirit or accompanying a rite of passage. Main article: Renaissance music The beginning of the Renaissance in music is not as clearly marked as the beginning of the Renaissance in the other arts, and unlike in the other arts, it did not begin in Italybut in northern Europe, specifically in the area currently comprising central and northern Francethe Netherlandsand Belgium.

This, in turn, looked back to earlier times and customs, particularly in the music of the Jewish people where the idea of a static drone commonly underpinned a second vocal line.

Most of the chant repertory was composed anonymously in the centuries between the time of Gregory and Charlemagne. Opera appears in earnest in the Baroque period and becomes an established musical form and vehicle for astonishing expression and diversity.

One key development is that of the Piano. It is unknown if the first dancers created a musical accompaniment, or if music led to people moving rhythmically.

When was music created

It certainly indicates remarkable links to the music that would follow, perhaps most notably through the use of modality in Greek music. Principal forms of sacred musical composition at the time were the mass , the motet , and the laude ; secular forms included the chanson , the frottola , and later the madrigal. In parallel, the Teutonic world began to undergo its own revolution in the form of the second Viennese school, led by Arnold Schoenberg. Music lurks in the corners of everyday life. During this time, there were two general types of music styles; the monophonic and the polyphonic. Espie Estrella is a lyricist, songwriter, and member of the Nashville Songwriters Association International. Main article: Renaissance music The beginning of the Renaissance in music is not as clearly marked as the beginning of the Renaissance in the other arts, and unlike in the other arts, it did not begin in Italy , but in northern Europe, specifically in the area currently comprising central and northern France , the Netherlands , and Belgium. As instrumental pieces became accepted into the repertoire, we find the development of instruments like the bassoon and the trombone giving rise to larger and more elaborate instrumental groupings. To reflect this shift, composers wanted to create music that was less complicated and easier to understand.

The symphonies of Gustav Mahler stand like stone pillars of achievement at the end of the Romantic period alongside the tone poems of Richard Strauss. Disillusioned with the confines of tonality Schoenberg threw out the tonal system in favour of a new twelve-tone serial system giving each step of the chromatic scale equal musical validity.

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A Beginner's Guide to Music History